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Trending Technology in Field of Computer Science

Top 10 Technology in Computer Science 2018

Now-a-days, technology is on the trends. In field of computer science, everyday technology is changing per minute. New trends are arriving in computer science which needs to be known by every individual. Here is the list of latest technologies that are trending in computer science field. Take a look!

# 1. Internet of Things

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The Internet of Things is a network of physical objects – vehicles, machines, home appliances, and more – that use sensors and APIs to connect and exchange data over the Internet.

  • Benefits of the Internet of Things

   1. New business models and revenue
      Automatic product replenishment? Subscription services? Apps? The IoT is disrupting traditional business models and creating massive opportunities for companies to       create new services based on real-time sensor data and information.

    2. Operational efficiency
      One of the biggest benefits of the IoT is the efficiency it can offer. Many companies are using it to automate business and manufacturing processes, remotely                monitor and control operations, optimise supply chains, and conserve resources.

3. Workforce productivity
   Wearables and other IoT-enabled devices are boosting workforce productivity and job satisfaction in many verticals. The technology is helping employees improve          decision making, automate routine tasks, fast-track communication, and more.

4. Enhanced customer experiences
   From integrating customer care with actual product performance and usage, to delivering highly personalised products and services, the IoT offers many ways to          create more compelling customer experiences across digital and physical worlds.

  • IoT use in key sectors

1. Manufacturing
The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is completely transforming the way products are made. Manufacturers are using the IIoT and M2M communication to drive industrial automation, predict and prevent equipment failures, improve worker safety, and much more.

2. Transportation
Intelligent transportation systems are moving people and cargo from A to Z all over the world. Thousands of IoT sensors are used on planes, trains, ships, and vehicles to optimise everything from engine performance and safety to logistics and supply chain management.

3. Automotive
Car manufacturers and tech companies are using the IoT to help drivers in connected cars (or smart cars) avoid accidents, predict maintenance issues, find parking spots, and more. The IoT and machine learning are also bringing self-driving cars to the market. Read More..

# 2. Big data

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Big data is a term that describes the large volume of data – both structured and unstructured – that inundates a business on a day-to-day basis.

  • Benefits of Big Data

1. You can take data from any source and analyze it to find answers that enable 1) cost reductions, 2) time reductions, 3) new product development and optimized offerings, and 4) smart decision making. When you combine big data with high-powered analytics, you can accomplish business-related tasks such as:

  • Determining root causes of failures, issues and defects in near-real time.
  • Generating coupons at the point of sale based on the customer’s buying habits.
  • Recalculating entire risk portfolios in minutes.
  • Detecting fraudulent behavior before it affects your organization.

  • Big Data use in key sectors

1. Banking
With large amounts of information streaming in from countless sources, banks are faced with finding new and innovative ways to manage big data. While it’s important to understand customers and boost their satisfaction, it’s equally important to minimize risk and fraud while maintaining regulatory compliance. Big data brings big insights, but it also requires financial institutions to stay one step ahead of the game with advanced analytics.

2. Education
Educators armed with data-driven insight can make a significant impact on school systems, students and curriculums. By analyzing big data, they can identify at-risk students, make sure students are making adequate progress, and can implement a better system for evaluation and support of teachers and principals.

3. Government
When government agencies are able to harness and apply analytics to their big data, they gain significant ground when it comes to managing utilities, running agencies, dealing with traffic congestion or preventing crime. But while there are many advantages to big data, governments must also address issues of transparency and privacy.

4. Health Care
Patient records. Treatment plans. Prescription information. When it comes to health care, everything needs to be done quickly, accurately
– and, in some cases, with enough transparency to satisfy stringent industry regulations. When big data is managed effectively, health care
providers can uncover hidden insights that improve patient care.

5. Manufacturing
Armed with insight that big data can provide, manufacturers can boost quality and output while minimizing waste – processes that are key in today’s highly competitive market. More and more manufacturers are working in an analytics-based culture, which means they can solve problems faster and make more agile business decisions.

6. Retail
Customer relationship building is critical to the retail industry – and the best way to manage that is to manage big data. Retailers need to know the best way to market to customers, the most effective way to handle transactions, and the most strategic way to bring back lapsed business. Big data remains at the heart of all those things. Read More...

# 3. Blockchain

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A Blockchain is a diary that is almost impossible to forge. one spreadsheet is called a block .The whole family of blocks is the Blockchain. Every node has a copy of the Blockchain. The Blockchain updates itself every ten minutes. It does so automatically. No master or central computer instructs the computers to do this.

  • Benefits of Blockchain
Traditional online databases usually use a client-server network architecture. This means that users with access rights can change entries stored in the database, but the overall control remains with administrators. When it comes to a Blockchain database, each user is in charge of maintaining, calculating and updating every new entry. Every single node must work together to make sure that they are coming to the same conclusions.

  • The Blockchain is a database, which is distributed among all nodes.
  • No one or several nodes control the Blockchain.
  • All nodes are able to validate a transaction.
  • All communication on the Blockchain is p2p.
  • Anyone using a Blockchain is anonymous if that is what they wish.
  • All transactions occurring on a Blockchain are recorded there, so the transactions of any person using the network are public and completely transparent, even though they may be anonymous.
  • Once a transaction is recorded on the Blockchain and the Blockchain has updated, then that transaction cannot be altered.
  • No one person or organization can turn off a Blockchain.
  • Although a Blockchain is politically and architecturally decentralized it is logically centralized.

  • Blockchain use in key sectors

1. A warranty claim
Usually settling warranty claims is expensive, time-consuming and often difficult for those making the claim. It is possible to implement smart contracts using Blockchain that will inevitably make the process a lot easier.

2. Derivatives
Derivatives are used in stock exchanges and are concerned with the values of assets. Smart contracts in the trading of stocks and shares could revolutionize current practices by streamlining, automating and reducing the costs of derivatives trading across the industry. Settlements could be completed in seconds rather than the three days that are needed at present. Using smart contracts, peer-to-peer trading will become a usual operation, resulting in a complete revolution in stock trading.

3. Identity verification
Too much time and effort is currently wasted on identity verification. Using the decentralization of Blockchains, the verification of online identity will be much quicker. Online identity data in a central location will vanish with the use of the Blockchain smart contracts. Computer hackers will no longer have centralized points of vulnerability to attack.

4. The protection of intellectual property
Archiving enabled by Blockchain will offer much greater protection of intellectual property than before. An application called Ascribe, using Blockchain, already gives this protection.

5.  Social media
At present, social media organizations are able to freely use the personal data of their clients. This helps them make billions of dollars. Using Blockchain smart contracts, users of social media will be enabled to sell their personal data, if they so desire. Such ideas are being investigated at MIT. The aim of the OPENPDS/SA project is to provide the data-owner to tune the degree of privacy preservation using the Blockchain technology. Read More...

# 4. BitCoin and Cryptocurrency
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Bitcoin is digital money that is not issued or controlled by anyone. It is used to securely store and transfer any amount of value anywhere in the world. It is used to buy goods and services, store wealth, or send value to anyone without the permission of a third party.

Cryptocurrency can be define as a type of digital currency that uses cryptography for security and anti-counterfeiting measures. In which both Public and private keys are often used to transfer cryptocurrency between individuals.

  • Benefits of BitCoin and Cryptocurrency

1. In some parts of the world, bitcoin is still a more efficient and cheaper way to transfer money across borders, and several remittance
startups make use of this feature.

2. Bitcoin's cost and speed advantages, though, are being eroded as traditional channels improve (and the network's fees continue to
increase), and liquidity remains a problem in many countries.

  • BitCoin and Cryptocurrencyuse in key sectors

1. Financial Field

# 5. Artificial Intelligence
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Artificial Intelligence abbreviated as AI, is the branch of computer science concerned with making machines intelligent. Artificial intelligence can be used in a wide range of fields including education, medical diagnosis, robot control, computer games, law, scientific discovery, stock trading.

  • Artificial Intelligence use in key sectors
      • Computer vision
      • Epistemology
      • Heuristics
      • Machine learning
      • Natural language processing
      • Neural networks
      • Ontology
      • Pattern recognition
      • Reasoning
      • Speech recognition
      • Statistical AI

# 6. Quantum Computing
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The basic idea is to smash some barriers that limit the speed of existing computers by harnessing the counterintuitive physics of subatomic scales.

  • Benefits of Quantum Computing

1. Quantum computers do calculations using bits, too. After all, we want them to plug into our existing data and computers. But quantum
bits, or qubits, have unique and powerful properties that allow a group of them to do much more than an equivalent number of
conventional bits.

2. Qubits can be built in various ways, but they all represent digital 0s and 1s using the quantum properties of something that can be
controlled electronically

  • Future Scope

1. Google, IBM, Intel, and Microsoft have all expanded their teams working on the technology, with a growing swarm of startups such as
Rigetti in hot pursuit.

2. China and the European Union have each launched new programs measured in the billions of dollars to stimulate quantum R&D.

# 7. Machine learning
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Machine learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. The primary aim of is machine learning  to allow the computers learn automatically without human intervention or assistance and adjust
actions accordingly.

# 8. Social Computing
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Social computing is a broad research area situated at the intersection of computer science, economics, and other social sciences. It concerns both harnessing human intelligence for computational tasks and the design of computational systems that support social behavior and interactions.

  • Some examples of recent research efforts include:

1. Algorithms for information dissemination:
We focus on studying fundamental properties of social networks and then develop algorithmic frameworks that leverage these properties for the benefit of information dissemination.

2. Online labor market design:
We study how to match tasks with workers and how to price tasks to improve the efficiency of online labor markets. In addition, we also investigate the design of reputation systems for online labor markets.

3. Experimental studies of incentives in crowdsourcing:
We run human-subject experiments to understand how financial, social, and psychological incentives affect participants' behavior in social computing systems and use the learned insights to improve the design of crowdsourcing workflows. Read More...

# 9.  Cloud Computing
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Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services—servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics and more—over the Internet (“the cloud”). Companies offering these computing services are called cloud providers and typically charge for cloud computing services based on usage, similar to how you are billed for water or electricity at home.

  • Benefits of cloud computing

1. Cost
Cloud computing eliminates the capital expense of buying hardware and software and setting up and running on-site datacenters—the racks of servers, the round-the-clock electricity for power and cooling, the IT experts for managing the infrastructure. It adds up fast.

2. Speed
Most cloud computing services are provided self service and on demand, so even vast amounts of computing resources can be provisioned in minutes, typically with just a few mouse clicks, giving businesses a lot of flexibility and taking the pressure off capacity planning.

3. Global scale
The benefits of cloud computing services include the ability to scale elastically. In cloud speak, that means delivering the right amount of IT resources—for example, more or less computing power, storage, bandwidth—right when its needed and from the right geographic location.

4. Productivity
On-site datacenters typically require a lot of “racking and stacking”—hardware set up, software patching and other time-consuming IT management chores. Cloud computing removes the need for many of these tasks, so IT teams can spend time on achieving more important business goals.

5. Performance
The biggest cloud computing services run on a worldwide network of secure datacenters, which are regularly upgraded to the latest generation of fast and efficient computing hardware. This offers several benefits over a single corporate datacenter, including reduced network latency for applications and greater economies of scale.

6. Reliability
Cloud computing makes data backup, disaster recovery and business continuity easier and less expensive, because data can be mirrored at multiple redundant sites on the cloud provider’s network.

  • Uses of cloud computing
      • Create new apps and services
      • Store, back up and recover data
      • Host websites and blogs
      • Stream audio and video
      • Deliver software on demand
      • Analyse data for patterns and make predictions

# 10. Bioinformatics
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Bioinformatics is the application of information technology to the study of living things, usually at the molecular level. Bioinformatics involves the use of computers to collect, organize and use biological information to answer questions in fields like evolutionary biology.

  • Important Points:

  • Evolutionary Biology
Evolutionary biology looks at the molecules of different organisms and determines whether they share a common evolutionary history. This process has the potential to uncover relationships between life forms never considered before. By using bioinformatics to track this data, evolutionary biologists can gain new insights into the causes of and cures for various diseases.

  • Protein Modeling
Proteins have specific functions in our bodies determined by DNA sequences. Using bioinformatic techniques, scientists can test theories about how various proteins interact. These tests may help scientists understand how diseases develop in living organisms.

  • Genome Mapping
Genome mapping is another bioinformatic technique used for scientific research. Computerized genomic maps make it easier for scientists to locate genes, and this increased efficiency results in higher productivity and greater scientific advancements. Due to this development in bioinformatics, scientists can spend less time on the painstaking mapping process and more time testing their hypotheses. Read More...

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